Heat wave characterization and its impact on carbon and water vapour fluxes over sugarcane-based agroecosystem


  • SHWETA POKHARIYAL Indian Institute of Remote Sensing ISRO, Govt. of India, 4, Kalidas Road, Dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand, India. Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar, 263145, Uttarakhand, India https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8345-3651
  • N.R. PATEL Indian Institute of Remote Sensing ISRO, Govt. of India, 4, Kalidas Road, Dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand, India
  • ABHISHEK DANODIA Indian Institute of Remote Sensing ISRO, Govt. of India, 4, Kalidas Road, Dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand, India
  • R.P. SINGH Indian Institute of Remote Sensing ISRO, Govt. of India, 4, Kalidas Road, Dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand, India




Temperature, Heat wave, Agroecosystem, Eddy covariance, Carbon fluxes


Global climate change expected to exacerbate the temperature extremes and intensity of heat waves in recent decades. The terrestrial biosphere plays a crucial role in absorbing carbon from the atmosphere. Therefore, understanding how terrestrial ecosystems respond to extreme temperatures is essential for predicting land-surface feedbacks in a changing climate. In light of this, a study was conducted to assess the effects of 2022 heat wave [March-May (MAM)] on carbon and water vapour fluxes. This study utilized the measurements obtained from the eddy covariance tower mounted within the sugarcane agroecosystem. The study period (MAM) was characterized into three events: Heat wave event 1 (HE1), Heat wave event 2 (HE2), Non heat wave event (NHE). The variation in carbon and water vapour fluxes, along with meteorological variables, during these events in 2020 and 2022 was further analysed. Our findings indicate that the heat wave caused a decrease in net ecosystem exchange (NEE), leading to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration during HE1, HE2 compared to NHE. In HE1, maximum NEE in 2020 and 2022 was -19.15 µmol m-2 s-1 and -13.21 µmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Furthermore, the heat wave events led to a decrease in latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H), with changes of up to 5% in LE and 57% in H compared to the same period in 2020. These results highlight the significant impact of the heatwave on both carbon and energy fluxes. Overall, the present study provides a valuable reference for further climate change analysis, specifically focusing on both carbon and energy fluxes within sugarcane ecosystem.



Arain, M.A., Xu, B., Brodeur, J.J., Khomik, M., Peichl, M., Beamesderfer, E. and Thorne, R. (2022). Heat and drought impact on carbon exchange in an age-sequence of temperate pine forests. Ecol. Process., 11(1):1-18.

Bal, S.K., Prasad, J.V.N.S. and Singh, V.K. (2022). Heat wave 2022 Causes, impacts and way forward for Indian Agriculture. Technical Bulletin No. ICAR/CRIDA/ TB/01/2022, ICAR-Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, p50.

Bhattacharya, A., Thomas, A., Soni, V.K., Roy, P.S., Sarangi, C. and Kanawade, V.P. (2023). Opposite trends in heat waves and cold waves over India. J. Earth Syst. Sci., 132(2): 67.

Choat, B., Jansen, S., Brodribb, T.J., Cochard, H., Delzon, S., Bhaskar, R. and Zanne, A.E. (2012). Global convergence in the vulnerability of forests to drought. Nature, 491(7426): 752-755.

de Carvalho, A.L., Menezes, R.S.C., Nóbrega, R.S., de Siqueira Pinto, A., Ometto, J.P.H. B., von Randow, C. and Giarolla, A. (2015). Impact of climate changes on potential sugarcane yield in Pernambuco, northeastern region of Brazil. Renew. Energy, 78: 26-34.

Frank, D., Reichstein, M., Bahn, M., Thonicke, K., Frank, D., Mahecha, M. D. and Zscheischler, J. (2015). Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: concepts, processes and potential future impacts. Glob. Change Biol., 21(8): 2861-2880.

Gomathi, R., Yukashini, K., Shiyamala, S., Vasantha, S., Suganya, A. and Rakkiyappan, P. (2013). Induced response of sugarcane variety Co 86032 for thermotolerance. Sugar Tech., 15(1): 17-26.

Gupta, S., Tiwari, Y.K., Revadekar, J.V., Burman, P.K.D., Chakraborty, S. and Gnanamoorthy, P. (2021). An intensification of atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to the surface temperature extremes in India. Meteorol. Atmos. Physics, 133(6): 1647-1659.

Hanson, C.E., Palutikof, J.P., Dlugolecki, A. and Giannakopoulos, C. (2006). Bridging the gap between science and the stakeholder: the case of climate change research. Clim. Res., 31(1): 121-133.

IPCC (2021). Climate change 2021: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

Jemimah, M. L., Rajput, C., Machiwal, D. and Sharma, A. (2011). Detection of heat wave trends in semi-arid climate of Udaipur, Rajasthan. J. Agrometeorol., 13(1), 62-64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.54386/jam.v13i1.1337

Kothawale, D.R., Revadekar, J.V. and Rupa Kumar, K. (2010). Recent trends in pre-monsoon daily temperature extremes over India. J. Earth Syst. Sci., 119(1):51-65.

Kohila, S. and Gomathi, R. (2018). Adaptive physiological and biochemical response of sugarcane genotypes to high-temperature stress. Indian J. Plant Physiol., 23:245-260.

Krishnan, R., Sanjay, J., Gnanaseelan, C., Mujumdar, M., Kulkarni, A. and Chakraborty, S. (2020). Assessment of climate change over the Indian region: a report of the ministry of earth sciences (MOES), government of India (p. 226). Springer Nature.

Lewis, S.C. and King, A.D. (2015). Dramatically increased rate of observed hot record breaking in recent Australian temperatures. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(18): 7776-7784.

Mahdi, S. S., Dhekale, B. S., Choudhury, S. R., Haque, M. and Gupta, S. K. (2020). Magnitude, frequency, trends of heat and cold waves in recent decades and impact assessment in wheat: the case of north Bihar, India. J. Agrometeorol., 22(4), 477-487. DOI: https://doi.org/10.54386/jam.v22i4.457

Mandal, R., Joseph, S., Sahai, A. K., Phani, R., Dey, A., Chattopadhyay, R. and Pattanaik, D. R. (2019). Real time extended range prediction of heat waves over India. Sci. Rep., 9(1): 1-11.

Monteith, J. L. (1965). Evaporation and environment. In Symp. Soc. Exp.Biol. (Vol. 19, pp. 205-234). Cambridge University Press (CUP) Cambridge.

Monteith, J.L. and Unsworth, M.H. (1990). Principles of Environmental Physics. 2nd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Elsevier, Oxford

Morales, D., Rodríguez, P., Dell'Amico, J., Nicolas, E., Torrecillas, A. and Sánchez-Blanco, M. J. (2003). High-temperature preconditioning and thermal shock imposition affects water relations, gas exchange and root hydraulic conductivity in tomato. Biol. Plant., 47(2): 203-208.

Patel, N.R., Pokhariyal, S., Chauhan, P. and Dadhwal, V. K. (2021). Dynamics of CO2 fluxes and controlling environmental factors in sugarcane (C4)–wheat (C3) ecosystem of dry sub-humid region in India. Int. J. Biometeorol., 65(7): 1069-1084.

Pokhariyal, S. and Patel, N.R (2021). Evaluation of variation in radiative and turbulent fluxes over winter wheat ecosystem along Indo-Gangetic region. Arab. J. Geosci., 14(19): 1-11.

Praveen, D., Ramchandran A., RajaLakshmi D. and Palanivelu K. (2017). Spatiotemporal analysis of projected impacts of climate change on the major C3 and C4 crop yield under representative concentration pathway 4.5: insight from the coasts of Tamil Nadu, South India. PloS One, 12(7): e0180706.

Rohini, P., Rajeevan, M. and Srivastava, A.K. (2016). On the variability and increasing trends of heat waves over India. Sci. Rep., 6(1): 1-9.

Seneviratne, S.I., Corti, T., Davin, E.L., Hirschi, M., Jaeger, E.B., Lehner, I. and Teuling, A. J. (2010). Investigating soil moisture–climate interactions in a changing climate: A review. Earth Sci. Rev., 99(3-4): 125-161.

Singh, B. and Maayar, M. (1998). Potential impacts of greenhouse gas climate change scenarios on sugar cane yields in Trinidad. (348). Trop. Agric., 75(3).

Srivastava, S., Pathak, A.D., Gupta, P.S., Shrivastava, A.K. and Srivastava, A.K. (2012). Hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzymes impart tolerance to high temperature induced oxidative stress in sugarcane. J. Env. Bio., 33(3): 657.

Tiwari, Y.K., Revadekar, J.V. and Kumar, K.R. (2014). Anomalous features of mid-tropospheric CO2 during Indian summer monsoon drought years. Atm. Env., 99, 94-103.

Van Gorsel, E., Wolf, S., Cleverly, J., Isaac, P., Haverd, V., Ewenz, C. and Silberstein, R. (2016). Carbon uptake and water use in woodlands and forests in southern Australia during an extreme heat wave event in the “Angry Summer” of 2012/2013. Biogeosci., 13(21), 5947-5964.

Wahid, A., Gelani, S., Ashraf, M. and Foolad, M.R. (2007). Heat tolerance in plants: an overview. Environ. Experim. Bot., 61(3): 199-223.

Zimmermann, N.E., Yoccoz, N.G., Edwards Jr, T.C., Meier, E.S., Thuiller, W., Guisan, A. and Pearman, P.B. (2009). Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species. Proc. National Acad. Sci., 106 (supplement_2), 19723-19728.




How to Cite

POKHARIYAL, S., PATEL, N., DANODIA, A., & SINGH, R. (2023). Heat wave characterization and its impact on carbon and water vapour fluxes over sugarcane-based agroecosystem . Journal of Agrometeorology, 25(3), 375–382. https://doi.org/10.54386/jam.v25i3.2239