Journal of Agrometeorology <p>The<em><strong> Journal of Agrometeorology (JAM)</strong></em> with<em><strong> ISSN 0972-1665 (print) </strong></em>and <em><strong>2583-2980 (online)</strong>,</em> is an Open Access quarterly publication of Association of Agrometeorologists, Anand, Gujarat, India, appearing in March, June, September and December. The Journal focuses and accepts high-quality original research papers dealing with all aspects of the agrometeorology of field and horticultural crops, including micrometeorology, crop weather interactions, crop models, climate change and agriculture, aero-biometeorology, agroclimatology, remote sensing applications in agriculture, mountains meteorology, hydrometeorology, climate risk management in agriculture, climate impact on animals, fisheries and poultry, and operational agrometeorology. Articles are published after double-blind peer review and approval of the editor. The acceptance rate of submitted articles is less than 20 per cent.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>FORTHCOMING ISSUE</strong></p> <p><a href=""><strong>Volume 26 Number 1 (2024): March</strong></a></p> Association of Agrometeorologists en-US Journal of Agrometeorology 0972-1665 <p>This is a human-readable summary of (and not a substitute for) the <a href="">license</a>. <a id="x-x-disclaimer_popup" title="" href="">Disclaimer</a>.</p> <h3>You are free to:</h3> <p><strong>Share</strong> — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format</p> <p><strong>Adapt</strong> — remix, transform, and build upon the material</p> <p>The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.</p> <ul id="x-x-license-freedoms-no-icons"></ul> <h3>Under the following terms:</h3> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="x-x-appropriate_credit_popup" title="" href="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="x-x-indicate_changes_popup" title="" href="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.</p> <p><strong>NonCommercial</strong> — You may not use the material for <a id="x-x-commercial_purposes_popup" title="" href="">commercial purposes</a>.</p> <p><strong>ShareAlike</strong> — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the <a id="x-x-same_license_popup" title="" href="">same license</a> as the original.</p> <p><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or <a id="x-x-technological_measures_popup" title="" href="">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</p> <h3>Notices:</h3> <p>You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable <a id="x-x-exception_or_limitation_popup" title="" href="">exception or limitation</a>.</p> <p>No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as <a id="x-x-publicity_privacy_or_moral_rights_popup" title="" href="">publicity, privacy, or moral rights</a> may limit how you use the material.</p> Ancient science of weather forecasting in India with special reference to rainfall prediction <p>The monsoon on the Indian subcontinent remains a seasonal occurrence that all inhabitants of the subcontinent desire. Modern scientific knowledge of methods of rain forecasting has originated recently. However, traditional indigenous wisdom is peculiar to our country. In the past, India had a magnificent scientific and technical legacy. Even today, it is common that village astrologers (pandits) are right in a surprisingly high percentage of their rain predictions. Scientists and local traditional farmers have a long history of astronomical research and treatises that predict rainfall. They use different methods to forecast rainfall conditions based on numerous <em>panchangs, almanac</em> bio-indicators (<em>Bhoum </em>method), non-bio-indicators <strong>(</strong><em>Antariksh</em> method), and predict the likely behavior of climate in the planting season. Rainfall forecasting also aids in the planning of operations by agriculturists, builders, water supply engineers, and others. All mortals from the subcontinent have looked at it from their own perspective, and it continues to be the subject of intense multi-dimensional engagement. The monsoon has provided a means of life for numerous civilizations while also shaping the drainages and palaeo-geography of the subcontinent. The objective of this article is to document some indigenous knowledge for forecasting climate and environmental dynamics towards community resilience.</p> VIDYADHAR B. VAIDYA VYAS PANDEY SUVARNA DHABALE Copyright (c) 2023 VIDYADHAR B. VAIDYA, VYAS PANDEY, SUVARNA DHABALE 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 477 490 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2422 Flash drought in Odisha- prediction, impact assessment, coping strategies: Current status and future strategies <p>A detailed review was done on the past studies conducted by the researchers on climate change and variability, particularly for the Indian conditions having a typical monsoon climate. The short-term droughts (flash droughts) occurring due to the prolonged dry spells, heat waves, soil moisture deficits, which are caused due to the climate variability were also investigated. Accurate prediction techniques used for flash drought (FD), assessment of its impact on agriculture and farmers’ income as well as appropriate coping strategies recommended by different researchers to minimize the losses in crop yield and farmers’ income were analyzed.&nbsp; The total loss in crop yield was found to increase with increase in land size; however, per acre loss was higher for smaller holdings. It was observed that the resource crunch small and marginal farmers particularly belonging to SC/ST were worst sufferers due to their inability to adopt appropriate coping strategies such as: crop insurance, short duration climate resilient cultivars, low-interest loans from financial institutions etc. It was inferred that the FD needs special attention particularly for the state of Odisha, where a majority of the population are engaged in agriculture and its allied activities. Agriculture accounts for around 30 per cent of the net state domestic product (NSDP). Investigations of the past studies revealed that the western Odisha regions are most vulnerable to climate change and variability and to the FD caused by the climate variability. The small and marginal tribal farmers of western Odisha whose sole source of income is from agriculture, with low affordability, are worst affected. To cope with these natural calamities, they need to adopt coping strategies namely, going for a variety of sources of income, cultivation of short-duration climate resilient varieties, in-situ rainwater conservation and use for life-saving irrigation, crop insurance, and low interest loans as well as low-cost post-harvest techniques for the perishable crop produce etc.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> R. K. PANDA U. C. MOHANTY SUBHAPRADA DASH CURIE PARHI Copyright (c) 2023 R. K. PANDA, U. C. MOHANTY, SUBHAPRADA DASH, CURIE PARHI 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 491 497 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2450 C.V. Raman's Student L.A. Ramdas - From Agricultural Meteorology to Discovery of Ramdas Layer <p>Indian Physicist Dr C.V. Raman, the founder of the Raman Spectroscopy, is the only Indian who received Nobel Prize in Science. Raman trained almost 100 scientists in his laboratory who influenced the development of science and technology in India. Dr L A Ramdas was one of them who began his research career under Raman in the beginning of 1920s. Not only, he coined the term ‘Raman Effect’, but also studied the scattering of light in gases and vapours. The present book written by Dr Rajinder Singh, presents Ramdas’s work on light scattering in association with Raman, his venture in establishing a new field namely, Agricultural Meteorology, and subsequently the discovery of Ramdas Layer, named after him.</p> HARDEV SINGH VIRK Copyright (c) 2023 HARDEV SINGH VIRK 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 616 618 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2393 Response of aestivum and durum wheat varieties to elevated CO2 and temperature under OTC condition <p>An experiment was undertaken during <em>rabi</em> season of 2020-2021 and 2021-2022 at experimental field of Division of Environmental Science, ICAR-Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi inside Open Top Chambers (OTCs) to study the growth and physiological response of <em>aestivum </em>(HD 3226) and <em>durum </em>wheat (HI 8627) varieties to elevated temperature and CO<sub>2</sub> concentration. Results showed that days to maturity hastened under elevated temperature condition. Photosynthesis rate, leaf area index and tiller number of wheat varieties reduced in elevated temperature treatment while elevated CO<sub>2</sub> concentration of 550 ppm was able to partially compensate the reduction. In <em>aestivu</em>m variety of wheat, transpiration rate significantly reduced in elevated CO<sub>2</sub> plus high temperature interaction treatment than ambient while transpiration rate of <em>durum</em> variety remained unaffected. The negative effect of elevated temperature on aboveground biomass was more in <em>aestivum</em> variety than <em>durum</em> variety. Elevated CO<sub>2</sub> concentration compensated reduction in aboveground biomass by 5.9% in HD 3226 (<em>aestivum</em>) and by 3.6% in HI 8627 (<em>durum</em>) varieties under elevated temperature condition. Hence elevated CO<sub>2</sub> concentration will be able to partially compensate reduced crop growth in both <em>aestivum</em> and <em>durum</em> wheat varieties under high temperature condition.</p> SHRAVANI SANYAL BIDISHA CHAKRABARTI A. BHATIA S. NARESH KUMAR T.J. PURAKAYASTHA DINESH KUMAR PRAGATI PRAMANIK S. KANNOJIYA A. SHARMA V. KUMAR Copyright (c) 2023 SHRAVANI SANYAL, BIDISHA CHAKRABARTI, A. BHATIA, S. NARESH KUMAR, T.J. PURAKAYASTHA, DINESH KUMAR, PRAGATI PRAMANIK, S. KANNOJIYA, A. SHARMA, V. KUMAR 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 498 502 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2366 Impact of tillage and residue management on greenhouse gases emissions and global warming potential of winter wheat in a semi-arid climate <p>A two-year field study was carried out at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute New Delhi, from <em>rabi</em> 2020-21 to 2021-22, with the aim of examining the impacts of tillage and residue management on yield, greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and carbon efficiency ratio (CER) of wheat in a split plot design. The results indicated that both tillage and residue management significantly influenced the grain and biomass yield of wheat. In comparison to conventional tillage (CT), no-tillage (NT) resulted in a substantial reduction of CO<sub>2</sub>-C emissions by 19.9%, while it led to a notable increase of N<sub>2</sub>O-N emissions by 11.6%. However, there was a notable and significant rise in GHG emissions with crop residue mulching, registering on an average 20.79% higher emissions compared to residue removal for both the years. The GWP was overall lower in case of NT as compared to CT plots. The highest CER was observed in NTR+ (3.07) during 2020-21 and in NTR0 (3.12) during 2021-22 due to lower CO<sub>2</sub> emissions and higher C fixation in both years. Therefore, it may be recommended that wheat can be cultivated in a semi-arid environment with no tillage and residue mulching to provide a comparable yield in addition to lower GHG emissions and GWP and higher CER compared to the farmers’ practice of CT and residue removal.</p> PRIYA BHATTACHARYA K.K. BANDYOPADHYAY P. KRISHNAN P.P. MAITY T.J. PURAKAYASTHA A. BHATIA B. CHAKRABORTY S.N. KUMAR SUJAN ADAK RITU TOMER MEENAKSHI Copyright (c) 2023 PRIYA BHATTACHARYA, K.K. BANDYOPADHYAY, P. KRISHNAN, P.P. MAITY, T.J. PURAKAYASTHA, A. BHATIA, B. CHAKRABORTY, S.N. KUMAR, SUJAN ADAK, RITU TOMER, MEENAKSHI 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 503 509 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2337 Comparative analysis of two parameter-dependent split window algorithms for the land surface temperature retrieval using MODIS TIR observations <p>MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) product is extensively used in agricultural studies like crop health assessment, soil moisture estimation, irrigation management, land use land cover change, air-temperature retrieval and crop water stress detection. Numerous studies have used Split Window (SW) algorithms to retrieve LST from MODIS TIR bands. Among them, some utilize Sensor View Angle Dependent (SVAD) or Columnar Water Vapor Dependent (CWVD) SW algorithms. Present study aims to make use of SVAD and CWVD SW algorithms and compare them to evaluate the LST retrieval accuracy over various land surface type. Theoretical accuracy assessment of the CWVD and SVAD algorithms demonstrates a good accuracy with the RMSE of 1.09K and 1.42K, respectively. The experimental retrieval of LST achieves exceptionally good accuracy, with a RMSE of 1.45K in the CWVD algorithm and 1.80K in the SVAD algorithm, particularly in heterogeneous regions. In homogeneous regions, the RMSE values are 1.14K in CWVD and 1.10K in SVAD. Both algorithms exhibit satisfactory accuracy; nevertheless, the application of these algorithms may vary in agricultural contexts. Based on the obtained results and the inclusion of required parameters, we have arrived at a conclusion regarding the superior performance of the SVAD compared to the CWVD for LST retrieval.</p> JALPESH A. DAVE MEHUL R. PANDYA DHIRAJ B. SHAH HASMUKH K. VARCHAND PARTHKUMAR N. PARMAR HIMANSHU J. TRIVEDI VISHAL N. PATHAK MANOJ SINGH DISHA B. KARDANI Copyright (c) 2023 JALPESH A. DAVE, MEHUL R. PANDYA, DHIRAJ B. SHAH, HASMUKH K. VARCHAND, PARTHKUMAR N. PARMAR, HIMANSHU J. TRIVEDI, VISHAL N. PATHAK, MANOJ SINGH, DISHA B. KARDANI 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 510 516 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2286 Surface soil moisture estimation in bare agricultural soil using modified Dubois model for Sentinel-1 C-band SAR data <p>Surface soil moisture has vital role in water energy balance, climate change and agriculture mainly for crop water requirements and irrigation scheduling. Microwave remote sensing with its unique characteristics of high penetration and sensitivity towards dielectric constant, has enabled the researchers to explore various techniques for soil moisture estimation. With the launch of Sentinel-1 (A&amp;B) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites, the hindrance in accessing high spatial and temporal resolution data is eliminated. The current study focuses on surface soil moisture estimation for bare agricultural fields in the semi-arid region. Field soil moisture up to 5 cm depth using HydraGo Probe sensor and surface roughness synchronizing with satellite pass dates were collected from total 102 locations spanning four dates. Volumetric and sensor-based soil moisture are well correlated with R<sup>2</sup> = 0.85. The Modified Dubois Model (MDM) was applied to obtain the relative permittivity of the soil for the backscattering coefficient (σ◦) for VV polarization, which is used as one of the inputs in universal Topp’s model for soil moisture calculation. Model derived soil moisture is well correlated with ground-based soil moisture for the entire range of the soil moisture (0.02-0.18 m<sup>3</sup>m<sup>-3</sup>) with R<sup>2</sup> = 0.85 and RMSE=0.005. The entire soil moisture was categorized in three soil moisture ranges to evaluate the sensitivity. The highest correlation was observed for 0.06-0.1 m<sup>3</sup>m<sup>-3</sup> with R<sup>2</sup> = 0.73 and RMSE=0.003 followed by 0.015-0.6 m<sup>3</sup>m<sup>-3</sup> with R<sup>2</sup> = 0.81 and RMSE=0.001 and 0.11-0.18 m<sup>3</sup>m<sup>-3</sup> with R<sup>2</sup> = 0.48 and RMSE=0.019 which is significantly low. Performance accuracy of MDM is encouraging for bare soil moisture estimation for even the lower range of surface soil moisture.</p> ABISHEK MURUGESAN RUCHA DAVE AMIT KUSHWAHA DHARMENDRA KUMAR PANDEY KOUSHIK SAHA Copyright (c) 2023 ABISHEK MURUGESAN, RUCHA DAVE, AMIT KUSHWAHA, DHARMENDRA KUMAR PANDEY, KOUSHIK SAHA 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 517 524 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2303 Modelling adaptation strategies towards climate smart red gram production in Tamil Nadu <p>Assessing the pulse of an important legume crop, red gram (<em>Cajanus cajan L.</em>) of Tamil Nadu under changing climate and framing adaptation strategies were formulated using the DSSAT model. The assessment was done for the popular variety of red gram, viz., CO(RG)7 with August 1<sup>st</sup> as sowing date, under constant CO<sub>2</sub> (380ppm) and CO<sub>2</sub> enrichment. The adaptation strategies such as altering the sowing date and 25 per cent increment in nitrogenous fertilizer were carried out with CO<sub>2</sub> enrichment conditions. The yield was found to be adversely affected by the warming scenario of the climate system without CO<sub>2</sub> fertilization. With the incorporation of enriched CO<sub>2</sub> data, the average yield increases until the end of the century, but with temporal and spatial variations. Among the different agro climatic zones of Tamil Nadu, highest yield was recorded in Western Zone and lowest in Southern Zone. There was no response to application of Nitrogenous fertilizer. July 15 sowing was identified to be the best sowing for the base as well as future period for CO(RG)7.</p> PRADIPA CHINNASAMY PANNEERSELVAM SHANMUGAM GEETHALAKSHMI VELLINGIRI JAGANATHAN R BHUVANEESWARI K. S. VIGNESWARAN Copyright (c) 2023 PRADIPA CHINNASAMY, PANNEERSELVAM SHANMUGAM, GEETHALAKSHMI VELLINGIRI, JAGANATHAN R, BHUVANEESWARI K., S. VIGNESWARAN 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 525 531 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2280 Long-term response of rainfed sorghum to diverse growing environments and optimal sowing window at Coimbatore <p style="margin: 0cm; text-align: justify; text-indent: 36.0pt; line-height: 200%;">Rainfed sorghum production is profoundly vulnerable to climate variability. Sowing the crop at an appropriate time could be one of the most crucial climate-resilient options to improve the yield. The well-calibrated and validated CERES-Sorghum model was employed to study the rainfed sorghum response to varied environments over the long term (1983–2021) and to determine the optimum sowing window at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. The CERES-Sorghum model was used for automatic-planting with a different minimum threshold of 50,60,70 and 80 percent soil water content at 15 cm soil depth under various sowing windows from 1<sup>st</sup>September to 13<sup>th</sup> October at a 7-day interval. The model results of automatic planting event indicated the best performance of 1<sup>st</sup> September sowing window at 50 percent soil water content over 39 years under semi-arid environment. The temperature rise of 1˚C exhibited no significant influence on sorghum grain yields at all sowing windows and a slight reduction in yield was observed at an elevated 2˚C temperature. A further rise in temperature reduced the yield drastically on September month sowings. Across the sowing window, first week sowing window (1<sup>st</sup> to 7<sup>th</sup> September) yield was higher under current climatic conditions. The yield of 1<sup>st</sup> September sowing window remained higher in the elevated temperature conditions as well as in both deficit and excess rainfall conditions than other sowings. In current and future climatic conditions, 1<sup>st</sup> September sowing window would be the best sowing time to mitigate climate risk in rainfed sorghum.</p> AMMAIYAPPAN A. V. GEETHALAKSHMI K. BHUVANESWARI M.K. KALARANI N. THAVAPRAKAASH M. PRAHADEESWARAN Copyright (c) 2023 AMMAIYAPPAN A., V. GEETHALAKSHMI, K. BHUVANESWARI, M.K. KALARANI, N. THAVAPRAKAASH, M. PRAHADEESWARAN 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 532 538 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2362 Evaluating crop water stress through satellite-derived crop water stress index (CWSI) in Marathwada region using Google Earth Engine <p>Accurate information of crop water requirements is essential for optimal crop growth and yield. Assessing this information at the appropriate time, particularly during the vegetative and reproductive stages when water demand is highest, is crucial for successful crop production. Our study cantered on the drought-prone Marathwada region, specifically targeting the years 2015 to 2020, encompassing the challenging drought year of 2015 and the favourable year of 2020. The crop water stress was detected using crop water stress (CWSI) index and compared with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference wetness index (NDWI) derived from satellite data. Our findings reveal a negative correlation between the CWSI and satellite derived vegetation indices NDVI and NDWI. Notably, the NDWI index exhibits stronger alignment with CWSI compared to NDVI. The correlation demonstrates particular robustness during drought or deficient rainfall years such as 2015, 2017, and 2019, while weaker correlations are observed in 2016, 2018, and 2020. Moreover, these correlations display variations across different areas within distinct rainfall zones.</p> ANIL KUMAR SONI JAYANT NATH TRIPATHI KRIPAN GHOSH M. SATEESH PRIYANKA SINGH Copyright (c) 2023 ANIL KUMAR SONI, JAYANT NATH TRIPATHI, KRIPAN GHOSH, M. SATEESH, PRIYANKA SINGH 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 539 546 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2211 Estimation of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient for coriander using Portable Automatic Closed Canopy Chamber <p>An experiment was carried out to determine crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of Coriander crop by using Portable Automatic Closed Canopy Chamber (PACCC), Micro-Lysimeter (MLs) and field water balance (FWB) methods. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the coriander crop evapotranspiration measured by the MLs inside and outside the PACCC and no significant difference among the crop evapotranspiration measured by the PACCC, MLs and FWB at 95 percent confidence level was found. It is indicating that, there are no effects of the change in micro-climate for a short period of 2 minutes in the chamber and on the plant physiological processes. During validation of PACCC, the average crop coefficients measured by MLs were varied from 0.66 to 1.26 for coriander crop. However, the stage wise crop coefficients of corianders measured by FWB were varied from 0.67 to 1.28 during field testing of PACCC. The result showed that the PACCC can be used for measurement of crop evapotranspiration in the field condition.</p> DEEPAK KUMAR P.H. RANK Copyright (c) 2023 DEEPAK KUMAR KUMAR, P.H. RANK 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 547 552 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2315 The synergy of ambient air quality and thermal discomfort: A case study of Greater Cairo, Egypt <p>The interaction between thermal discomfort and air pollution poses significant challenges for human health and environmental well-being. When there is a high level of air pollution, it can worsen thermal discomfort by trapping heat in the atmosphere. This paper aims to study this interaction in arid megacities during different weather events. Weather data and air pollution were utilized to evaluate air quality, thermal discomfort levels, their impact, and their relationship at three separate sites (Qaha, Naser City, and 6th of October City). The ambient air quality is determined by measuring the levels of particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO<sub>2</sub>), and sulfur dioxide (SO<sub>2</sub>). The work included a statistical analysis of the discomfort index (DI) and the air quality index (AQI) for each city and their linkage with the weather. The air quality evaluation revealed that a significant portion of the population in Qaha frequently experienced discomfort and were exposed to unhealthy levels of air pollution. The results show that most of the population in all three cities experience discomfort at least some of the time with varying degrees. In Qaha, 28.97% of the population experiences no discomfort, while 25.41% experiences severe stress. In Nasr City, 32.15% of the population experiences no discomfort, while 20.21% experiences severe stress. The 6th of October City, 33.76% of the population experienced no discomfort, while 16.65% experienced severe stress. Noted that certain months, specifically June to September, are associated with higher levels of discomfort, affecting more than 50% of the population. Seasonal variations in discomfort can be due to a range of factors, including weather, climate, and environmental conditions. The temporal variation in discomfort reflects the challenges people face when transitioning from colder to hotter seasons.</p> MOSTAFA ABD EL-HAMEED MOHAMED MOHAMMED M. A. HWEHY FAWZIA IBRAHIM MOURSY ATTIA MAHMOUD EL-TANTAWI Copyright (c) 2023 MOSTAFA ABD EL-HAMEED MOHAMED, MOHAMMED M. A. HWEHY, FAWZIA IBRAHIM MOURSY, ATTIA MAHMOUD EL-TANTAWI 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 553 559 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2309 Phenology, heat unit requirement and heat use efficiency of African marigold under year-round transplanting conditions of Punjab, India <p>The present study was conducted during 2021-22 and 2022-23 to study crop phenology, heat unit requirement and heat use efficiency (HUE) in African marigold under year-round transplanting at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. The highest heat use efficiency for seed and flower production were recorded in crop transplanted in rainy season particularly in the month of August. Higher growing degree days (GDD) and photothermal units (PTU) for attaining bud visibility and 50 % flowering stages were recorded under spring and summer transplanting (February to June) due to longer day length conditions which forced the crop to witness shorter seed filling period with lesser seed yield and HUE. Optimum seed yield period in marigold (rainy season transplanting), however, recorded lesser GDD and PTU for attainment of bud visibility and 50 % flowering as compared to summer transplanting dates and consequently had longer seed filling period resulting in higher seed yield. Notably, GDD and PTU for seed filling period recorded higher values in rainy season transplanted crop as compared to crop transplanted in other seasons of year. Correlation studies were conducted to understand the role of weather variables for high seed yield obtained under rainy season transplanting. Seed yield in African marigold recorded the highest value of correlation with HUE for seed production (r<sup>2</sup>= 0.978) followed by GDD for seed filling period (r<sup>2</sup>= 0.810), HUE for flower production (r<sup>2</sup>= 0.787) and PTU for seed filling period (r<sup>2</sup>= 0.774), respectively. Apparently, mean temperature and sunshine hours during seed filling period are the most important determinants of seed yield in African marigold.</p> RAKESH KUMAR NAVJYOT KAUR RANJIT SINGH Copyright (c) 2023 RAKESH KUMAR, NAVJYOT KAUR, RANJIT SINGH 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 560 564 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2299 Climatological approaches of irrigation scheduling for growing tomato crop under drip irrigation in sub-tropical region of Punjab <p>A field experiment was conducted at Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab for two years (2022 and 2023) to study the response of tomato crop to drip irrigation scheduling based on climatological approach viz. Penman-Monteith, Blaney-Criddle and pan evaporation. Result revealed that, the all treatments of irrigation scheduling were found feasible for optimizing tomato yield (30.8 to 44.6 t ha<sup>-1</sup>), water saving (27 to 50.7%) and water use efficiency (1.31 to 1.61 t ha<sup>-1</sup>-cm) under drip irrigation over soil moisture depletion approach. In selected region the average daily ET<sub>0</sub> (4.4 to 9 mm day<sup>-1</sup>) and ET<sub>C </sub>(2.5 to 10.8 mm day<sup>-1</sup>) varies with different growth stages and results varying crop water demand of tomato. This water demand can successfully meet out by applying water at 100 % ET<sub>0</sub> based on Penman-Monteith method with significant crop yield (44.6 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and water use efficiency (1.33 t ha<sup>-1</sup>-cm). Correlation analysis indicated that, in case of other regions where the availability of weather parameters will be limited for irrigation scheduling, the farmer could irrigate their tomato crop at 90% ET<sub>0 </sub>based on daily pan evaporation method under drip irrigation. In selected region, the Blaney-Criddle method was found ineffective and shows under and overestimated values of daily ETo during mid stage and late stage which gives more water saving (up to 51%) but reduces significant tomato yield over Pan Evaporation method.</p> VIKAS SHARMA NITIN M. CHANGADE SURYAKANT B. TARATE K. K. YADAV B.K. YADAV Copyright (c) 2023 VIKAS SHARMA, NITIN M. CHANGADE, SURYAKANT B. TARATE, K. K. YADAV, B.K. YADAV 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 565 570 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2269 ARIMA approach for temperature and rainfall time series prediction in Punjab <p>The present study aims to explore the effectiveness of Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) models in forecasting meteorological time series data exhibiting seasonal patterns. We compared the performance of SARIMA models with different configurations and evaluate their forecasting accuracy using real-world meteorological datasetsfor three different agroclimatic zones of Punjab (sub mountainous region, central region and south west region) was analyzed to forecast mean monthly maximum air temperature, minimum air temperature and rainfall. The weather data was used from 1984-2022 for sub-mountainous zone (Ballowal Saunkhri), 1970-2022 for Central zone (Ludhiana) and 1977-2022 for south west zone (Bathinda). The results provide insights into the suitability and limitations of SARIMA models for meteorological forecasting and offer practical recommendations for practitioners and researchers in the field. The goodness of fit was tested against residuals using Ljung-Box test. The accuracy of the model was tested using Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and root square mean error (RMSE). The model achieved Mean Absolute Errors (MAE) ranging from 0.61 to 0.78 for maximum temperature, 0.74 to 0.49 for minimum temperature, and 32.12 to 45.44 for rainfall, with lower MAE values indicating higher predictive accuracy. The fitted model was able to capture dynamics of the temperature time series and produce a sensible forecast. However, the model was unable to forecast rainfall series efficiently.</p> K. K. GILL KAVITA BHATT BALJEET KAUR SANDEEP SINGH SANDHU Copyright (c) 2023 K. K. GILL, KAVITA BHATT, BALJEET KAUR, SANDEEP SINGH SANDHU 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 571 576 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2250 Beta regression model for predicting development of powdery mildew in black gram <p>Black gram is a widely grown pulse crop in Asia, prized for its nutritional value and compatibility with various cropping systems. However, the occurrence of powdery mildew, <em>Erysiphe polygoni </em>DC disease poses a significant challenge to black gram production, resulting in potential yield losses in Tamil Nadu. Over a six-year period, spanning from 2017-2018 to 2022-2023, field experiments were conducted during the rabi season at the black soil farm of the Agricultural Research Station in Kovilpatti. The primary objective was to evaluate the incidence of powdery mildew in black gram and establish a statistical model by correlating it with weather variables. Notably, observations of disease index were most frequent during the flowering and pod development stages of the crop. Among the eleven weather parameters considered in the study, maximum temperature, afternoon relative humidity, and sunshine hours emerged as the key contributors to explaining the variation in the Disease Index. Further, a betareg model was developed using these selected variables to predict powdery mildew incidence in black gram.</p> S. KOKILAVANI GEETHALAKSHMI V PANGAYARSELVI J BHUVANEESWARI J SUDHAKAR G SUBBULAKSKMI S PRIYANKA P TIMMANNA S. K. BAL Copyright (c) 2023 S. KOKILAVANI, GEETHALAKSHMI V, PANGAYARSELVI J, BHUVANEESWARI J, SUDHAKAR G, SUBBULAKSKMI S, PRIYANKA P, TIMMANNA, S. K. BAL 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 577 582 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2343 Prediction of potato late blight disease incidence based on weather variables using statistical and machine learning models: A case study from West Bengal <p>Late blight is one of the most devastating diseases on potato the world over, including West Bengal, India. The economic and yield losses from outbreaks of potato late blight can be huge. In this article, application of statistical models such as autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) in combination with machine learning models such as, neural network auto regression (NNAR), support vector regression (SVR) and classification and regression tree (CART) have been explored to predict the percentage disease index (PDI) of potato late blight in the northern part of West Bengal. Models were developed to predict PDI at 3- and 7-days interval using the weather variables <em>viz.</em>, rainfall, maximum and minimum temperature, maximum and minimum relative humidity, and dew point temperature. Among the developed models, CART to predict PDI at 7 days interval was found to be the best fitted model on the basis of least RMSE, MAE and MAPE. The results of decision tree (CART) model showed that dew point temperature had a significant effect on PDI at 7 days interval and the incidence of potato late blight was high when dew point temperature was greater than 12 <sup>0</sup>C in the preceding week.</p> VAIDHEKI M DEB SANKAR GUPTA PRADIP BASAK MANOJ KANTI DEBNATH SATYAJIT HEMBRAM AJITH S. Copyright (c) 2023 VAIDHEKI M, DEB SANKAR GUPTA, PRADIP BASAK, MANOJ KANTI DEBNATH, SATYAJIT HEMBRAM, AJITH S. 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 583 588 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2272 Weather based forecasting model for emergence of Aprostocetus purpureus (Cameron) – a parasitoid of lac insect, Kerria lacca (Kerr) <p>Indian lac insect, <em>Kerria lacca</em> is a scale group beneficial insect which suffers by several natural enemies. The establishment of the relationship between the incidences of natural enemies on lac insects with weather variables is essential for formulating management strategies well in advance. The relationship between weather factors and the emergence of <em>A.</em> <em>purpureus </em>was studied from 2011–12 to 2020–21 on the <em>rangeeni</em> summer (<em>baisakhi</em>) lac crop. Correlation and regression analyses were done after pooling ten years data (2011-12 to 2020-21) during the critical lac growth period i.e. SMW 8 to SMW 20. The relative abundance of lac-associated fauna showed that three parasitoids ((<em>Aprostocetus purpureus</em>, <em>Tachardiaephagus tachardiae, </em>and <em>Tyndarichus</em>(<em>=Parechthrodryinus</em>) <em>clavicornis</em>)) and one predator (<em>Eublemma amabilis</em><em>)</em> were abundant. Among them, <em>A. purpureus </em>recorded maximum percent infestation, which was 84% and 75% on <em>ber</em> and <em>palas</em>, respectively. Maximum number of <em>A. purpureus </em>was emerged during the sexual maturity period (8 to 20 SMW) of the summer lac crop. The incidence exhibited a significant negative correlation with maximum (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin) and a significant positive correlation with morning and evening relative humidity (RH-II). Stepwise regression analysis showed Tmax and RH-II were the most important factors contributing to 68% variation in the incidence of <em>A. purpureus </em>on <em>palas. </em>The present study results indicated that environmental factors played a significant role in the incidence of parasitoids on lac insect.</p> MOHANASUNDARAM ARUMUGAM KEWAL KRISHAN SHARMA MOHAMMAD MONOBRULLAH JAIPAL SINGH CHOUDHARY ACHINTYA PRAMANIK NAASERAH ZEESHAN MUNNA YADAV Copyright (c) 2023 MOHANASUNDARAM ARUMUGAM , KEWAL KRISHAN SHARMA, MOHAMMAD MONOBRULLAH, JAIPAL SINGH CHOUDHARY, ACHINTYA PRAMANIK, NAASERAH ZEESHAN, MUNNA YADAV 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 589 594 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2345 Influence of meteorological factors on trap catches and incidence of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) on Bt cotton <p>The pink bollworm incidence and adult male moth trap catches were monitored throughout the cropping period for four years from 2017-2021 on <em>Bt</em> cotton (KCH-14K59) at University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur. The pink bollworm male moth activity (95 moths/trap) was more during the month of December month (49<sup>th</sup> SMW) with the highest larval incidence (25.67 larvae/ 20 bolls) on green bolls during the month of February (6<sup>th</sup> - 9<sup>th </sup>SMW). The correlation matrix indicating relationship between the weekly mean moth catches, larval incidence and meteorological variables from 2017 to 2021 exerted negative association with mean of maximum and minimum temperature, rainfall, morning and afternoon relative humidity. However, the influence of all these whether parameters was found to be highly significant. When the data was subjected to Multi Linear Regression analysis, the results revealed that 78.70 per cent of mean pheromone trap catches (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.787) and 92 per cent of mean larval incidence (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.92) was negatively influenced by minimum temperature.</p> RAKHESH S SHIVANAND G HANCHINAL BHEEMANNA M HOSAMANI A K. NIDAGUNDI J M. PRABHULINGA TENGURI Copyright (c) 2023 RAKHESH S, SHIVANAND G HANCHINAL, BHEEMANNA M, HOSAMANI A K., NIDAGUNDI J M., PRABHULINGA TENGURI 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 595 599 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2300 Influence of weather parameters on Anthracnose in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) in the upper Brahmaputra valley zone of Assam <p>Black pepper (<em>Piper nigrum</em> L.) production faces several challenges due to various diseases, with anthracnose being the most significant. It is caused by <em>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides </em>(Penz.) Penz. and Sacc., a fungal plant pathogen that leads to severe infections in black pepper plants, both in nurseries and in the field. The occurrence of anthracnose disease is highly influenced by weather conditions. Epidemiological studies were conducted at Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam from 2019 to 2021 to determine the impact of weather factors such as temperature, rainfall, rainy days, and relative humidity on anthracnose incidence in seven different black pepper varieties. Upon analyzing the recorded data, it was found that rainfall, minimum temperature, rainy days, and morning relative humidity are the most significant contributors to disease occurrence. However, the role of maximum temperature, evening relative humidity, and bright sunshine hours was statistically non-significant. Data from 2019 and 2020 were further analyzed using stepwise multiple regression to estimate anthracnose incidence in individual black pepper varieties. These regression models were subsequently validated using data of 2021. The root mean square error values varied between 0.0001 and 0.0011, indicating that the models are acceptable. </p> RAJSHREE VERMA APURBA DAS PRETY REKHA NARZARY SANJIB SHARMA Copyright (c) 2023 RAJSHREE VERMA, APURBA DAS, PRETY REKHA NARZARY, SANJIB SHARMA 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 600 605 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2408 Cutting of oilseed rape regulates agroclimatic indices and thermal efficiencies during different phenological stages. TEJINDER SINGH VIRENDER SARDANA Copyright (c) 2023 TEJINDER SINGH, VIRENDER SARDANA 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 606 609 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2346 Effect of weather parameters on the growth and development of downy mildew of grape caused by Plasmopara viticola M. P. KHATAL T. K. NARUTE R. B. SONAWANE V. K. BHALERAO Copyright (c) 2023 M. P. KHATAL, T. K. NARUTE, R. B. SONAWANE, V. K. BHALERAO 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 610 612 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2063 Estimation of crop water requirement of tomato in Algeria using CROPWAT model ABDELKADER BOUALEM Copyright (c) 2023 ABDELKADER BOUALEM 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 25 4 613 615 10.54386/jam.v25i4.2376