Spatial estimation of water requirement in greengram under changing climates of North Interior Karnataka


  • HEMMAREDDY THIMMAREDDY Agro Climate Research Centre, Tamil Nadu Agriculture Unversity, Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India
  • R. H. PATIL Department of Agricultural Meteorology, University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad, Karnataka-580001, India
  • K. G. SUMESH Department of Agricultural Meteorology, University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad-580001, Karnataka, India
  • GANAJAXI MATH All-India Coordinated Research Project on MULLaRP, MARS, Uinversity of Agricultural Science, Dharwad, Karnataka, India
  • MAHANTESH B. NAGANGOUDAR Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore-560065, Karnataka, India



CROPWAT, Crop evapotranspiration, Effective rainfall, Irrigation requirement, NIK


Greengram is one of the major protein rich grain legumes predominately cultivated in North Interior Karnataka (NIK). The study aimed at determining the water requirement of greengram variety DGGV- 2 using CROPWAT model that helps the farmers of NIK consisting of 12 districts in tapping the potential yields of this crop through proper irrigation management. The decadal analysis for 60 years was done under past (1991-2020) and projected climate (2021-2050) as per the recommended practices of UAS, Dharwad across four dates of sowing from 07th June to 28th June at weekly interval. The average crop evapotranspiration (ETc), effective rainfall (ER) and irrigation requirement (IR) under past climates (1991-2020) for NIK were 246, 269.3 and 37.4 mm, respectively. An increase of 26.8 mm in ETc, 21.6 mm in ER and decrease of 0.3 mm in IR were simulated under projected climates. Sowing late i.e., on 28th June under projected climate (2021-2050) simulated the lowest water requirement and irrigation requirement for all the 12 districts of NIK. The spatial distribution of ETc, ER and IR for all the 12 districts of NIK were interpreted under both past and projected climates using ArcGIS software.


Ali, M.H., Adham, A.K.M., Rahman, M.M. and Islam, A.K.M.R. (2009). Sensitivity of Penman–Monteith estimates of reference evapotranspiration to errors in input climatic data. J. Agrometeorol., 11(1): 1-8.

Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. and Smith, M. (1998). Crop evapotranspiration-guidelines for computing crop water requirements-FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56. FAO, Rome, 300(9): D05109.

Anonymous. (2016). Weather and climate of Karnataka., a tradition with technology. Bull., pp. 23.

Anonymous. (2021). Area, production and productivity,

Avinash, S.P., John, L.N. and Eldon, L.J. (1990). Effective rainfall estimation methods. J. Irrig. Drain. Eng., 116(2): 182-193.

Boonwichai, S., Shrestha, S., Babel, M.S., Weesakul, S. and Datta, A. (2018). Climate change impacts on irrigation water requirement, crop water productivity and rice yield in the Songkhram River Basin, Thailand. J. Cleaner Prod., 198: 1157-1164.

Hatfield, J.L. and Dold, C. (2019). Water-use efficiency: advances and challenges in a changing climate. Front. Plant Sci., 10: 103.

Jeshni, M.G., Mousavinik, M., Khammari, I. and Rahimi, M. (2017). The changes of yield and essential oil components of German Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) under application of phosphorus and zinc fertilizers and drought stress conditions. J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci. 16(1): 60-65.

Mondal, R., Ali, J., Biswas, S., Das, S., Dutta, D. and Sarkar, T. (2018). Effect of different levels of irrigation and nutrient on growth and yield of summer greengram cv. Bireswar in New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal. Int. J. Chem. Stud., 6(1): 386-90.

Movalia, J., Donga, S. and Parmar, K.B. (2020). Effect of boron and molybdenum on summer greengram (Vigna radiata L.) (GM-4) under medium black calcareous soils: A review. In Proceedings: National Conference on Innovations in Biological Sciences (NCIBS), Gujarat, India, January 10, 2020, pp. 599-625.

Muhammad, N. (2009). Simulation of maize crop under irrigated and rainfed conditions with CROPWAT model. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 4(2): 68-73.

Praveena, R., Ghosh, G. and Singh. V. (2018). Effect of foliar spray of boron and different zinc levels on growth and yield of kharif greengram (Vigna radiata L.). Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 7(8):1422-28.

Saravanan, P.S., Singh, K. and Ignesh, A. (2013). Effect of organic manures and chemical fertilizers on the yield and macronutrient concentrations of greengram. Int. J. Pharm. Sci., 2(1):18-20.

Shaloo, Himani Bisht, Bipin Kumar, Vijay Kumar Prajapati, and Man Singh. (2023). Spatio-temporal analysis of water requirement of maize (Zea mays L.) in Haryana state of India. J. Agrometeorol., 25(1):140–144.

Srinivas, B. and Tiwari, K.N. (2018). Determination of crop water requirement and crop coefficient at different growth stages of greengram crop by using non-weighing lysimeter. Int. J. Agri. Eviron. Sci., 7(9): 2580-2589.,

Yadav, A.S., Kumar, S., Kumar, N. and Ram, H. (2019). Pulses production and productivity: Status, potential and way forward for enhancing farmers income. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 8(4):15-22.




How to Cite

HEMMAREDDY THIMMAREDDY, R. H. PATIL, K. G. SUMESH, GANAJAXI MATH, & MAHANTESH B. NAGANGOUDAR. (2023). Spatial estimation of water requirement in greengram under changing climates of North Interior Karnataka. Journal of Agrometeorology, 25(2), 287–292.